Implementation of a comprehensive ice crystal formation parameterization for cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the EMAC model (based on MESSy 2.53)

Bacer, Sara; Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Barahona, Donifan; Krämer, Martina; Nenes, Athanasios; Tost, Holger; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Lelieveld, Jos; Pozzer, Andrea

A comprehensive ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC to improve the representation of ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs). The parameterization of Barahona and Nenes (2009, hereafter BN09) allows for the treatment of ice nucleation taking into account the competition for water vapour between homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in cirrus clouds. Furthermore, the influence of chemically heterogeneous, polydisperse aerosols is considered by applying one of the multiple ice nucleating particle parameterizations which are included in BN09 to compute the heterogeneously formed ice crystals. BN09 has been modified in order to consider the pre-existing ice crystal effect and implemented to operate both in the cirrus and in the mixed-phase regimes. Compared to the standard EMAC parameterizations, BN09 produces fewer ice crystals in the upper troposphere but higher ICNCs in the middle troposphere, especially in the Northern Hemisphere where ice nucleating mineral dust particles are relatively abundant. Overall, ICNCs agree well with the observations, especially in cold cirrus clouds (at temperatures below inline-formula205inline-formulaK), although they are underestimated between inline-formula200 and inline-formula220inline-formulaK. As BN09 takes into account processes which were previously neglected by the standard version of the model, it is recommended for future EMAC simulations.

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Bacer, Sara / Sullivan, Sylvia C. / Karydis, Vlassis A. / et al: Implementation of a comprehensive ice crystal formation parameterization for cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the EMAC model (based on MESSy 2.53). 2018. Copernicus Publications.

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