TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND USING LANDSAT SATELLITE DATA: TWO INDIAN CASE STUDIES
Urban environment is examined through time series Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and OLI/TIRS (Operational Land Imager & Thermal Infrared Sensor) sensor images. A continuous surface of Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be extracted from Landsat thermal bands. Similarly different band combinations and ratios will give spatial pattern of land cover categories. Among these, building and vegetation indices are used to characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of elevated temperature zones in cities. This excess heat concentration creates thermal hotspots which are known as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). Parameters of land cover are then related to LST to detect the influence of urbanization on intensity and extent of heat islands, by pixel based quantitative analysis. This paper focuses on two megacities of India and their surrounding districts for identifying the critical UHI areas. The purpose of this paper is to create a database for reconstruction in old cities and planning of new smart cities. Results suggest that urban sprawl and substitution of rural areas with impervious surface plays significant role in microclimate, causing formation of new thermal hotspots. The analysis of urban thermal environment and its dynamics is to provide a scientific basis for future strategy building.