INTEGRATED FLOOD STUDY OF BAGMATI RIVER BASIN WITH HYDRO PROCESSING, FLOOD INUNDATION MAPPING & 1-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
Flood is one of the most the most re-occurring natural hazard in the state of Bihar, as well as in India. The major rivers responsible for flood in the state of Bihar are Kosi, Gandak, Ghagra and Bagmati, which are the tributary rivers of Ganges. The head water catchment area of these rivers lies in the Himalayan state of Nepal. The high rainfall in Nepal, siltation of hydraulic structures, rivers and low topography of North Bihar causes flood occurrence in these areas on regular basis. Remote sensing and GIS plays an important role in mapping, monitoring and providing spatial database for all flood related studies. The present work focuses on the use remote sensing based topography and images in GIS environment for integrated flood study of Bagmati River, which is one of the most flood prone rivers of North Bihar. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) was used to create detailed sub-basin and river network map of entire Bagmati basin. The floods of July–August 2002 were mapped using RADARSAT-1 data using threshold based method. The SRTM DEM and ground based river cross-section from Dheng to Benibad stretch of Bhagmati River were used to create 1-dimensional hydrodynamic (1-D HD) model for simulating flood water level, discharge and flood inundation. Validation of simulated flood flows was done using observed water level of central water commission (CWC) from Dheng to Runisaidpur stations, with coefficient of correlation of 0.85. Finally, an integrated framework for flood modelling and management system is proposed.