TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF SURFACE DEFORMATION OF BENGALURU CITY USING SENTINEL-1 IMAGES
Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is an advanced technique to map ground surface displacements of an area over a period. The technique can measure deformation with a millimeter-level accuracy. It overcomes the limitations of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) such as geometric, temporal decorrelation and atmospheric variations between master and slave images. In our study, Sentinel-1A Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) mode descending pass images from May 2016 to December 2017 (23 images) are used to identify the stable targets called persistent scatterers (PS) over Bengaluru city. Twenty-two differential interferograms are generated after topographic phase removal using the SRTM 30 m DEM. The main objective of this study is to analyze urban subsidence in Bengaluru city in India using the multi-temporal interferometric technique such as PSI. The pixels with Amplitude Stability Index ≥ 0.8 are selected as initial PS candidates (PSC). Later, the PSCs having temporal coherence > 0.5 are selected for the time series analysis. The number of PSCs that are identified after final selection are reduced from 59590 to 54474 for VV polarization data and 15611 to 15596 for VH polarization data. It is interesting to note that a very less number of PSC are identified in cross-polarized images (VH). A high number of PSC have identified in co-polarized (VV) images as the vertically oriented urban targets produce a double bounce, which results in a strong return towards the sensor. The velocity maps obtained using VV and VH polarizations show displacement in the range of ± 20 mm year −1. The subsidence and the upliftment observed in the city shows a linear trend with time. It is observed that the eastern part of Bengaluru city shows more subsidence than the western part.