Upgrade and automation of the JPL Table Mountain Facility tropospheric ozone lidar (TMTOL) for near-ground ozone profiling and satellite validation
As part of international efforts to monitor air quality, several satellite missions such as the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) were deployed and others, like Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring Pollution (TEMPO), are planned for the near future. In support of the validation of these missions, major upgrades to the tropospheric ozone lidar located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF) were recently performed. These modifications include the full automation of the system, which now allows unattended measurements during frequent satellite overpasses, and a new receiver that extends the measurement capabilities of the system down to 100 m above surface. The automation led to the systematic operation of the lidar during daily TROPOMI overpasses, providing more than 139 reference profiles since January 2018. Ozone profiles retrieved using the new lidar receiver were compared to ozonesonde profiles obtained from a co-located tethered balloon. An agreement of about 5 % with the ozonesonde down to an altitude range of 100 m a.g.l. was observed. Furthermore, the stability of the receiver configuration was investigated. Comparisons between the lowest point retrieved by the lidar and a co-located surface ozone photometer showed no sign of drift over a 2-month test period and an agreement better than 10 %. Finally, measurements from a 24 h intensive measurement period during a stratospheric intrusion event showed good agreement with two free-flying ozonesondes. These comparisons revealed localized differences between sonde and lidar, possibly owing to the differing vertical resolutions (between 52 and 380 m for lidar and about 100 m for the sonde).