USING REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR CALCULATING THE COASTAL EROSION IN SOUTHERN THAILAND
There has been long-term observation of coastal erosion in Koh Kho Khao , Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga province, in Thailand, which was affected by a tsunami on December 26, 2004. The disaster, as is well known, caused the loss of lives and property. This area is recognized as one of the best tourist areas in Thailand. The objective of the research was to identify the coastal changes to the island, Koh Kho Khao. The Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing were used. Five- time periods were used, in which aerial photographs and satellite images were taken, with the aerial photographs taken in February, 2002. IKONOS images were taken on December 29, 2004, and Quick Bird images were dated the 23rd of February, 2009. Worldview-2 images were dated the 6th of December, 2012, while the Pleiades images were dated January 8, 2016. The coastlines were compared using the overlay technique. Coastal erosion and coastal deposition during consecutive years were calculated. The results showed that the tsunami in 2004 caused coastal erosion in the area, as coastal changes during those years were found. Additionally, natural adaptation was found after 14 years at the middle and upper parts of the island. Severe coastal erosion of the lower part of the island has been continuously found, with an erosion rate between 2002 and 2004 (2-year period), 2004 and 2009 (5-year period), 2009 and 2012 (3-year period), and 2012 and 2016 (4-year period) of 22.44, 9.96, 19.63, and 12.34 meters per year respectively. In addition the erosion rate between 2002 and 2016 (14-year period) was 100.97 meters per year. It was also found that the seawall was the main factor in the coastal erosion in the lower part of the island because it was recognized that the coastline was sharply cut along the seawall. It is recommended that the lower part of the island be declared a special observation area in order to prevent further coastal erosion.