Laser-induced fluorescence-based detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and comparison of different techniques during the PARADE 2011 field campaign
GANDALF (Gas Analyzer for Nitrogen Dioxide Applying Laser-induced Fluorescence), a new instrument for the detection of nitrogen dioxide based on the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, is presented in this paper. GANDALF is designed for ground-based and airborne deployment with a robust calibration system. In the current set-up, it uses a multi-mode diode laser (447–450 nm) and performs in situ, continuous, and autonomous measurements with a laser pulse repetition rate of 5 MHz. The performance of GANDALF was tested during the summer of year 2011 (15 August–10 September) in a field experiment at Kleiner Feldberg, Germany. The location is within a forested region with an urban influence, where NOx levels were between 0.12 and 22 parts per billion by volume (ppb). Based on the field results, the limit of detection is estimated at 5–10 parts per trillion by volume (ppt) in 60 s at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 2. The overall accuracy and precision of the instrument are better than 5 % (1σ) and 0.5 %+3 ppt (1σ min−1), respectively. A comparison of nitrogen dioxide measurements based on several techniques during the field campaign PARADE 2011 is presented to explore methodic differences.