Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer

Frey, Matthias; Sha, Mahesh K.; Hase, Frank; Kiel, Matthäus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Harig, Roland; Surawicz, Gregor; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Shiomi, Kei; Franklin, Jonathan E.; Bösch, Hartmut; Chen, Jia; Grutter, Michel; Ohyama, Hirofumi; Sun, Youwen; Butz, André; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Ene, Dragos; Wunch, Debra; Cao, Zhensong; Garcia, Omaira; Ramonet, Michel; Vogel, Felix; Orphal, Johannes

In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile, solar absorption Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer, which is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years; the drift per year between the EM27/SUN and the official TCCON product is 0.02 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 0.9 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4, which is within the 1inline-formulaσ precision of the comparison, 0.6 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 4.3 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. The bias between the two data sets is 3.9 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 13.0 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. In order to avoid sensitivity-dependent artifacts, the EM27/SUN is also compared to a truncated IFS 125HR data set derived from full-resolution TCCON interferograms. The drift is 0.02 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 0.2 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4 per year, with 1inline-formulaσ precisions of 0.4 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 1.4 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4, respectively. The bias between the two data sets is 0.6 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 0.5 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. With the presented long-term stability, the EM27/SUN qualifies as an useful supplement to the existing TCCON network in remote areas. To achieve consistent performance, such an extension requires careful testing of any spectrometers involved by application of common quality assurance measures. One major aim of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) infrastructure is to provide these services to all EM27/SUN operators. In the framework of COCCON development, the performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was tested and found to be very uniform, enhanced by the centralized inspection performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology prior to deployment. Taking into account measured instrumental line shape parameters for each spectrometer, the resulting average bias across the ensemble with respect to the reference EM27/SUN used in the long-term study in Xinline-formulaCO2 is 0.20 ppmv, while it is 0.8 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. The average standard deviation of the ensemble is 0.13 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 0.6 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. In addition to the robust metric based on absolute differences, we calculate the standard deviation among the empirical calibration factors. The resulting 2inline-formulaσ uncertainty is 0.6 ppmv for Xinline-formulaCO2 and 2.2 ppbv for Xinline-formulaCH4. As indicated by the executed long-term study on one device presented here, the remaining empirical calibration factor deduced for each individual instrument can be assumed constant over time. Therefore the application of these empirical factors is expected to further improve the EM27/SUN network conformity beyond the scatter among the empirical calibration factors reported above.

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Frey, Matthias / Sha, Mahesh K. / Hase, Frank / et al: Building the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometer. 2019. Copernicus Publications.

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