Atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO with the CRDS technique at the Izaña Global GAW station: instrumental tests, developments, and first measurement results
At the end of 2015, a CO2/CH4/CO cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) was installed at the Izaña Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station (Tenerife, Spain) to improve the Izaña Greenhouse Gases GAW Measurement Programme, and to guarantee the renewal of the instrumentation and the long-term maintenance of this program. We present the results of the CRDS acceptance tests, the raw data processing scheme applied, and the response functions used. Also, the calibration results, the implemented water vapor correction, the target gas injection statistics, the ambient measurements performed from December 2015 to July 2017, and their comparison with other continuous in situ measurements are described. The agreement with other in situ continuous measurements is good most of the time for CO2 and CH4, but for CO it is just outside the GAW 2 ppb objective. It seems the disagreement is not produced by significant drifts in the CRDS CO World Meteorological Organization (WMO) tertiary standards. The more relevant contributions of the present article are (1) determination of linear relationships between flow rate, CRDS inlet pressure, and CRDS outlet valve aperture; (2) determination of a slight CO2 correction that takes into account changes in the inlet pressure/flow rate (as well as its stability over the years), and attributing it to the existence of a small spatial inhomogeneity in the pressure field inside the CRDS cavity due to the gas dynamics; (3) drift rate determination for the pressure and temperature sensors located inside the CRDS cavity from the CO2 and CH4 response function drift trends; (4) the determination of the H2O correction for CO has been performed using raw spectral peak data instead of the raw CO provided by the CRDS and using a running mean to smooth random noise in a long water-droplet test (12 h) before performing the least square fit; and (5) the existence of a small H2O dependence in the CRDS flow and of a small spatial inhomogeneity in the temperature field inside the CRDS cavity are pointed out and their origin discussed.