Optimal estimation method retrievals of stratospheric ozone profiles from a DIAL
This paper provides a detailed description of a first-principle optimal estimation method (OEM) applied to ozone retrieval analysis using differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements. The air density, detector dead times, background coefficients, and lidar constants are simultaneously retrieved along with ozone density profiles. Using an averaging kernel, the OEM provides the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of altitude. A maximum acceptable height at which the a priori has a small contribution to the retrieval is calculated for each profile as well. Moreover, a complete uncertainty budget including both systematic and statistical uncertainties is given for each individual retrieved profile. Long-term stratospheric DIAL ozone measurements have been carried out at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) since 1985. The OEM is applied to three nights of measurements at OHP during an intensive ozone campaign in July 2017 for which coincident lidar–ozonesonde measurements are available. The retrieved ozone density profiles are in good agreement with both traditional analysis and the ozonesonde measurements. For the three nights of measurements, below 15 km the difference between the OEM and the sonde profiles is less than 25 %, and at altitudes between 15 and 25 km the difference is less than 10 %; the OEM can successfully catch many variations in ozone, which are detected in the sonde profiles due to its ability to adjust its vertical resolution as the signal varies. Above 25 km the difference between the OEM and the sonde profiles does not exceed 20 %.