Damage induced by the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake in the Tibetan border region of China and increased post-seismic hazards
The seismic effects in Nyalam, Gyirong, Tingri and Dinggye counties along the southern border of Tibet were investigated during 2–8 May 2015, a week after the great Nepal earthquake along the Main Himalaya Thrust. The intensity was VIII in the region and reached IX at two towns on the Nepal border, resulting in the destruction of 2700 buildings, seriously damaging over 40 000 others, while killing 27 people and injuring 856 in this sparsely populated region. The main geologic effects in this steep rugged region are collapses, landslides, rockfalls, and ground fissures, many of which are reactivations of older land slips. These did great damage to the buildings, roads, and bridges in the region. Most of the effects are along four incised valleys which are controlled by N-trending rifts and contain rivers that pass through the Himalaya Mountains and flow into Nepal; at least two of the larger aftershocks occurred along the normal faults. And, the damage is not related to the faulting of N-trending rifts but rather is distributed along the intensity of Nepal earthquake. Areas weakened by the earthquake pose post-seismic hazards. Another main characteristic of damage is the recurrence of the old landslide and rockfalls. In addition, there is an increased seismic hazard along active N-trending grabens in southern Tibet due to the shift in stress resulting from the thrust movement that caused the Nepal earthquake. NW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults also may be susceptible to movement. The results of the findings are incorporated in some principle recommendations for the repair and reconstruction after the earthquake.