APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES IN PALAEOODONTOLOGICAL STUDIES TROUGH AUTOMATED DIGITAL SHAPE ANALYSIS OF HUMAN TEETH
Odontological studies, which constitute a considerable part of anthropological research, have been predominantly based on visual, or odontoscopic, examination of teeth. The most studied parts are coronal parts of teeth in terms of their relief features, and, in reference to the current study, tooth cusp relief eminence, sharpness of cusp tips and degree of tooth outer slope inclination are of interest. Traditional odontological methods, in addition to visual, suggest measurement techniques for coronal parts in mesio-distal and vestibular-oral dimensions, which actually do not possess methodological potential for reasonable angular measurements. However, the suggested automated digital odontometric method, being largely based on photogrammetric techniques applied to 3D images of teeth, has showed its usability for such assessments. Tooth shape analysis is provided through software, being permanently elaborated in terms of automation degree for measurement objectivity and precision increase, as well as in expansions of parameters variety. Odontological samples from Upper Palaeolithic archaeological site of Sungir are picked for measurements in the current study due to their presumably archaic relief of molars, described for this unique finding by prominent odontologist A.A Zubov. This research includes comparisons with odontological material, which historically refers to significantly later periods (Early Bronze and Modern Era). The applied digital method has showed its effectiveness in estimation of parameters of demand in anthropological studies, and evaluations of visual studies and measurements are suggested in the article.