ATTILA 4.0: Lagrangian advective and convective transport of passive tracers within the ECHAM5/MESSy (2.53.0) chemistry–climate model
We have extended ATTILA (Atmospheric Tracer Transport in a LAgrangian model), a Lagrangian tracer transport scheme, which is online coupled to the global ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, with a combination of newly developed and modified physical routines and new diagnostic and infrastructure submodels. The new physical routines comprise a parameterisation for Lagrangian convection, a formulation of diabatic vertical velocity, and the new grid-point submodel LGTMIX to calculate the mixing of compounds in Lagrangian representation. The new infrastructure routines simplify the transformation between grid-point (GP) and Lagrangian (LG) space in a parallel computing environment. The new submodel LGVFLUX is a useful diagnostic tool to calculate online vertical mass fluxes through horizontal surfaces. The submodel DRADON was extended to account for emissions and changes of 222Rn on Lagrangian parcels. To evaluate the new physical routines, two simulations in free-running mode with prescribed sea surface temperatures were performed with EMAC–ATTILA in T42L47MA resolution from 1950 to 2010. The results show an improvement of the tracer transport into and within the stratosphere when the diabatic vertical velocity is used for vertical advection in ATTILA instead of the standard kinematic vertical velocity. In particular, the age-of-air distribution is more in accordance with observations. The global tropospheric distribution of 222Rn, however, is simulated in agreement with available observations and with the results from EMAC in grid space for both Lagrangian systems. Additional sensitivity studies reveal an effect of inter-parcel mixing on the age of air in the tropopause region and the stratosphere, but there is no significant effect for the troposphere.