EFFICIENT FLIGHT PLANNING FOR BUILDING FAÇADE 3D RECONSTRUCTION
Three-dimensional (3D) building model is gaining more scientific attention in recent times due to its application in various fields such as vehicle autonomous navigation, urban planning, heritage building documentation, gaming visualisation and tourism. The quality of the Level of Detail (LoD) of building models relies on the high-resolution data sets obtained for the building. As an alternative to laser scanners, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are efficient in collecting good quality images and generate reliable LoD3 of buildings (i.e. to model both roof and facades of a building) at comparatively lower cost and time. However, the complete collection of images on building facades is usually performed by manual flights along the different façade to assure a homogenous image coverage with the same resolution on each element: no offline autonomous procedure to define the main façade planes and acquire complete image sets independent of UAV platform have been developed yet. This paper proposes a novel methodology to generate the flight plan in correspondence of building facades. The Digital Surface Model (DSM) obtained from an initial nadir flight is used as an input to identify the target building and plan the image acquisition around it. The optimised flight plan ensures complete coverage of the building with a minimum number of images. The coordinates as well as the attitude of each planned image can be finally loaded on a UAV to perform the flight. In order to validate the proposed methodology, some tests performed on synthetic buildings of growing complexity and very different shapes are presented.