CORRECTION OF MOBILE MAPPING TRAJECTORIES IN GNSS-DENIED ENVIRONMENTS USING AERIAL NADIR AND AERIAL OBLIQUE IMAGES
Mobile mapping enables highly accurate as well as high-resolution image data capture at low cost and high speed. As a terrestrial acquisition technique predominately employed in urban, and thus built-up areas, non-line-of-sight and multipath effects challenge its absolute positioning capabilities provided by GNSS. In conjunction with IMU drift, the platform’s trajectory has an unknown accuracy, which influences the quality of the data product. By employing a highly accurate co-registration technique for identifying tie correspondences between mobile mapping images and aerial nadir as well as aerial oblique images, reliable ground control can be introduced into an adjustment solution. We exemplify the performance of our registration results by showcasing adjusted mobile mapping trajectories in four different test areas, each with about 100 consecutive recording locations (approx. 500 m length) in the city centre of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The mobile mapping data has been adjusted in different configurations, i.e. with nadir or oblique aerial correspondences only and if possible in conjunction. To compare the horizontal as well as the vertical accuracy before and after the respective adjustments, more than 30 ground control points were surveyed for these experiments. In general, the aim of our technique is not only to correct mobile mapping trajectories in an automated fashion but also to verify their accuracy without the need to acquire ground control points. In most of our test cases, the overall accuracy of the mobile mapping image positions in the trajectory could be improved. Depending on the test area, an RMSE in 3D between 15 and 21 cm and an RMSE in 2D between 11 and 18 cm is achievable.