Understanding volcanic facies in the subsurface: a combined core, wireline logging and image log data set from the PTA2 and KMA1 boreholes, Big Island, Hawai`i
To help understand volcanic facies in the subsurface, data sets that enable detailed comparisons between down-hole geophysical data and cored volcanic intervals are critical. However, in many cases, the collection of extended core intervals within volcanic sequences is rare and often incomplete due to challenging coring conditions. In this contribution we outline and provide initial results from borehole logging operations within two fully cored lava-dominated borehole sequences, PTA2 and KMA1, on the Big Island of Hawai`i. Data for spectral gamma, magnetic susceptibility, dipmeter resistivity, sonic, total magnetic field, temperature and televiewer wireline logs were successfully acquired for the open hole interval ca. 889 m to 1567 m within the PTA2 borehole. Spectral gamma was also collected from inside the casing of both wells, extending the coverage for PTA2 to the surface and covering the interval from ca. 300 to 1200 m for KMA1. High-quality core material was available for both boreholes with almost complete recovery which enabled high-resolution core-to-log integration. Gamma data are generally low commonly in the range ca. 7–20 gAPI but are shown to increase up to API of ca. 60 with some intrusions and with increases in hawaiite compositions in the upper part of PTA2. Velocity data are more variable due to alteration within porous volcanic facies than with burial depth, with a general degrease down-hole. The high-resolution televiewer data have been compared directly to the core, enabling a comprehensive analysis of the variations in the televiewer responses. This has enabled the identification of key features including individual vesicles, vesicle segregations, strained vesicles, chilled margins, rubble zones, intrusive contacts and pāhoehoe lobe morphologies, which can be confidently matched between the televiewer data and the full diameter core. The data set and results of this study include findings which should enable improved borehole facies analysis through volcanic sequences in the future, especially where down-borehole data and images but no core are available.