The TRIple-frequency and Polarimetric radar Experiment for improving process observations of winter precipitation
This paper describes a 2-month dataset of ground-based triple-frequency (X, Ka, and W band) Doppler radar observations during the winter season obtained at the Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution Core Facility (JOYCE-CF), Germany. All relevant post-processing steps, such as re-gridding and offset and attenuation correction, as well as quality flagging, are described. The dataset contains all necessary information required to recover data at intermediate processing steps for user-specific applications and corrections (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1341389; Dias Neto et al., 2019). The large number of ice clouds included in the dataset allows for a first statistical analysis of their multifrequency radar signatures. The reflectivity differences quantified by dual-wavelength ratios (DWRs) reveal temperature regimes where aggregation seems to be triggered. Overall, the aggregation signatures found in the triple-frequency space agree with and corroborate conclusions from previous studies. The combination of DWRs with mean Doppler velocity and linear depolarization ratio enables us to distinguish signatures of rimed particles and melting snowflakes. The riming signatures in the DWRs agree well with results found in previous triple-frequency studies. Close to the melting layer, however, we find very large DWRs (up to 20 dB), which have not been reported before. A combined analysis of these extreme DWR with mean Doppler velocity and a linear depolarization ratio allows this signature to be separated, which is most likely related to strong aggregation, from the triple-frequency characteristics of melting particles.