A new method to determine the aerosol optical properties from multiple-wavelength O4 absorptions by MAX-DOAS observation
Ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observation was carried out from November 2016 to February 2017 in Beijing, China, to measure the O4 absorptions in UV and visible bands and further to illustrate its relationship with aerosol optical properties (AOPs) under different weather types. According to relative humidity, visibility, and PM2.5, we classified the observation periods into clear, light-haze, haze, heavy-haze, fog, and rainy weather conditions. There are obvious differences for measured AOPs under different weather conditions, especially scattering coefficient (σsca) and absorption coefficient (σsca). It was also found that both the O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) at the UV and visible bands varied in the order of clear days > light-haze days > haze days > heavy-haze days > fog days. The correlation coefficients (R2) between O4 DSCDs at 360.8 and 477.1 nm mainly varied in the order of clear days > light-haze days > haze days > heavy-haze days. Based on the statistics of O4 DSCDs at an elevation angle 1∘ with the corresponding linear regression between UV and visible bands of segmental periods, the relationships between O4 DSCDs and AOPs were established. It should mainly be clear or light-haze days when the correlation slope is greater than 1.0, with a correlation coefficient (R2) greater than 0.9, and O4 DSCDs mainly greater than 2.5×1043 molec. cm−2. Meanwhile, σsca and σabs are less than 45 and 12 Mm−1, respectively. For haze or heavy-haze days, the correlation slope is less than 0.6, with an R2 less than 0.8, and O4 DSCDs mainly less than 1.3×1043 molec. cm−2, under which σsca and σabs are mainly located at 200–900 and 20–60 Mm−1. Additionally, the determination method was well validated based on another MAX-DOAS measurement at Gucheng from 19 to 27 November 2016. For more precise and accurate inversion of AOPs, more detailed look-up tables for O4 multiple-wavelength absorptions need to be developed. Since the ground surface AOPs were determined using MAX-DOAS observation at a 1∘ elevation in this study, we hope to highlight the potential of retrieved vertical spatially resolved AOPs being expected when multiple elevation angles of MAX-DOAS observation are used together.