A proposal of topographic map symbols for large-scale maps of urban areas in Brazil
This paper addresses a historical issue in Brazil that is that topographic mapping has been performed without application of the theories of cartography to local reality. With the lack of research on this subject, the rules and standards for topographic mapping in Brazil are based on solutions that have been developed in other countries. Even though topographic maps are not a frequent topic of cartographic research, as cited by Kent (2009), when the methods, techniques, and standards are imported from other countries, they are established by considering different natural, rural, and urban landscapes; different histories of land use and occupation; and different cultures. Consequently, it is essential to develop studies that address the theoretical issues of topographic mapping and to verify their suitability to Brazilian reality, considering the geographical aspects that must be represented in topographic mapping. Such a foundation of scientific knowledge is essential to producing solutions that are adapted to the environmental conditions and needs of Brazilian users and society.