Incorporating wind sheltering and sediment heat flux into 1-D models of small boreal lakes: a case study with the Canadian Small Lake Model V2.0
Lake models are increasingly being incorporated into global and regional climate and numerical weather prediction systems. Lakes interact with their surroundings through flux exchange at their bottom sediments and with the atmosphere at the surface, and these linkages must be well represented in fully coupled prognostic systems in order to completely elucidate the role of lakes in the climate system. In this study schemes for the inclusion of wind sheltering and sediment heat flux simple enough to be included in any 1-D lake model are presented. Example simulations with the Canadian Small Lake Model show improvements in surface-wind-driven mixing and temperature in summer and a reduction of the bias in the change in heat content under ice compared with a published simulation based on an earlier version of the model.