Lake sedimentation as an agent of postglacial transformation of interfluves and fluvial landscapes of the Borisoglebsk Upland, Central European Russia
Borisoglebsk Upland is considered an example of a secondary upland plain in the marginal zone of the last Middle Pleistocene glaciation. Moraine hills and kames were reworked by glaciofluvial processes and incised by small fluvial forms later. Its postglacial surface drift cover is regularly defined as an undivided complex of mantle loams of dominantly subaerial origin with characteristic cryogenic features and remnants of paleosols. However, some previous studies suggest that lake sedimentation played an important role in the postglacial history of the Borisoglebsk Upland. This paper presents results of a detailed investigation of postglacial sedimentary cover of the eastern part of the Borisoglebsk Upland aimed to reconstruct the co-evolution of surface deposits, soil cover and geomorphic landscapes since degradation of the last Middle Pleistocene glaciation about 150 ka (MIS-6). The study is essentially based on a comprehensive lithological, pedological and geocryological description of postglacial deposits in cores (hand or machine-driven) and open sections, systematic sampling for grain size analysis and selective sampling for 14C absolute dating and monoliths structural examination. The results indicate that most of the surface drifts in this feature consists of stratified lacustrine deposits. Their Late Pleistocene age is stratigraphically confined by the underlying paleosols and incorporated peats of the Mikulino interglacial age (MIS-5) and several organic-rich layers within the lake sequence 14C dated to the Middle Valdai interstadial (MIS-3). Overlying mantle loams and colluvial deposits with cryogenic features and low organic matter content those facially substitute lacustrine sediments were attributed to the Late Valdai stadial (MIS-2). After the Mid-Holocene stabilization, relatively thin colluvial cover identified by the increased amount of organic matter also deposited. We conclude that lacustrine sedimentation is the primary Late Pleistocene agent that transformed the initial glacial topography and most characteristic type of lithodynamics of the eastern Borisoglebsk Upland.