DETECTION AND DELINEATION OF SUBSURFACE COAL MINE FIRE FROM SPACEBORNE THERMAL INFRARED DATA IN JHARIA COALFIELD, DHANBAD, INDIA
Coal fire has been found to be a major problem worldwide in coal mining areas. The surrounding areas get hugely affected, and significant amount of reserves are wasted due to the burning of coal. This severely affects the environment condition, which leads to a rise in temperature of the region, which is a major reason for climate change. Greenhouse gases like CO2 SO2 NO CH4 are also emitted from the cracks and fissures. Large masses of the burning of coal also causes land subsidence and collapse. Underground coal fires ignited by natural causes or human error leads to atmospheric pollution, acid rain, land subsidence, and increased coronary and respiratory diseases. They consume a valuable energy resource, destroy floral and faunal habitats, and promote human suffering because of heat, subsidence, and pollution. Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, India, is well known for being the storehouse of prime coking coal and for accommodating the maximum number of coal fires among all the coalfields in the country. In this paper, some of the important issues of coal fire mapping from satellite thermal infrared data have been addressed in particular reference to Jharia Coalfield. Namely, these are: retrieval of spectral radiance from raw digital satellite data using scene-specific calibration coefficients of the detectors from metadata, thermal emissivity of surface to obtain kinetic temperature at each ground resolution cell of satellite data, field-based modelling of pixel-integrated temperature for differentiating surface and subsurface fire pixels in Landsat 8 thermal IR data, identification of surface coal fire locations from infrared data and lateral propagation of coal fire.