Fault-controlled dolomitization in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline (Central Apennines, Italy): record of a dominantly pre-orogenic fluid migration
The Lower Jurassic platform and basinal deposits exposed in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline (Central Apennines, Italy) are pervasively affected by dolomitization. Based on the integration of field work, petrography, and geochemistry, two fault-related dolomitization events were recognized and interpreted as having occurred before and during the Apenninic orogeny. Fluid inclusion analysis indicates moderate to elevated salinity values of 3.5 to 20.5 and 12.8 to 18.6 eq. wt % NaCl in the first and the second event, respectively. The estimated salinities, in combination with δ18O values and 87Sr∕86Sr ratios, suggest significant involvement of evaporitic fluids in both events, most likely derived from the underlying Upper Triassic Burano Formation. In addition, the 87Sr∕86Sr ratios up to 0.70963 suggest the circulation of deep-sourced fluids that interacted with siliciclastic rocks and/or the crystalline basement during the dolomitization events. Two major dolomite types (D1 and D2) were recognized as pertaining to the first event, both postdated by high-amplitude bed-parallel stylolites, supporting a syn-burial pre-layer-parallel shortening dolomitization. A possible geodynamic framework for this dolomitization event is Early Jurassic to Late Jurassic rift-related extensional tectonism. The second dolomitization event (D3, D4, and D5) is characterized by a temperature upturn (up to 105 ∘C) and interpreted as associated with the inflow of hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to major changes in the permeability architecture of faults during early- to syn-thrusting and folding activity. Based on the timing of deformation in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline, the second dolomitization event likely occurred in Late Miocene to Pliocene times. The findings regarding characteristics and timing of dolomitization here illustrates the long-term controlling role of the evaporitic detachments in the dolomitization process. This study shows that the Mg-rich fluids that were most likely derived from evaporites may prime the tectonically involved successions for repeated dolomitization, and hence the formation of potential reservoirs during sequential tectonic modifications (extensional vs. compressional).