Wet deposition of inorganic ions in 320 cities across China: spatio-temporal variation, source apportionment, and dominant factors

Li, Rui; Cui, Lulu; Zhao, Yilong; Zhang, Ziyu; Sun, Tianming; Li, Junlin; Zhou, Wenhui; Meng, Ya; Huang, Kan; Fu, Hongbo

The acid deposition has been considered to be a severe environmental issue in China. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and concentrations of water soluble ions (inline-formula M1inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg57a4663cbf0d11bf294d99bb32c9ae29 acp-19-11043-2019-ie00001.svg25pt16ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00001.png , inline-formulaCl, inline-formulaCa2+, inline-formulaK+, inline-formulaF, inline-formula M6inlinescrollmathml chem normal NH normal 4 + 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg6ca56caa63735c5009fe6b299c1a126b acp-19-11043-2019-ie00002.svg24pt15ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00002.png , inline-formulaMg2+, inline-formula M8inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg40da026c69d6bb7b362f8aefb7758b92 acp-19-11043-2019-ie00003.svg29pt17ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00003.png , and Nainline-formula+) in the precipitation samples collected from 320 cities during 2011–2016 across China were measured. The mean concentrations of inline-formulaF, inline-formula M11inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgeb51cd45ba2a21283d090226a04e61ba acp-19-11043-2019-ie00004.svg25pt16ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00004.png , and inline-formula M12inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg97cb19aa5ca8b26a6d7fd7d4bad307d2 acp-19-11043-2019-ie00005.svg29pt17ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00005.png were in the order of winter (6.10, 19.44, and 45.74 inline-formulaµeq Linline-formula−1) inline-formula> spring (3.45, 13.83, and 42.61 inline-formulaµeq Linline-formula−1) inline-formula> autumn (2.67, 9.73, and 28.85 inline-formulaµeq Linline-formula−1) inline-formula> summer (2.04, 7.66, and 19.26 inline-formulaµeq Linline-formula−1). Secondary ions (inline-formula M24inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimga37f0080584a5af55d602bece406075e acp-19-11043-2019-ie00006.svg29pt17ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00006.png , inline-formula M25inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg361af9fc60c163df468716a068868655 acp-19-11043-2019-ie00007.svg25pt16ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00007.png , and NHinline-formula M26inlinescrollmathml normal 4 + ) 12pt15ptsvg-formulamathimgd53ad71897ec3c7fd0dc998c7ef3cc8c acp-19-11043-2019-ie00008.svg12pt15ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00008.png and inline-formulaF peaked in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Sichuan basin (SB). Crustal ions (i.e. inline-formulaCa2+, inline-formulaMg2+), inline-formulaNa+, and inline-formulaCl showed the highest concentrations in the semi-arid regions and the coastal cities. The statistical methods confirmed that the mean anthropogenic contribution ratios to inline-formula M32inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimgffbe05c8ea0f1e229c212e21ef64f69c acp-19-11043-2019-ie00009.svg29pt17ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00009.png , inline-formulaF, inline-formula M34inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg983e472baa2b1950fa497a555dcc7b2e acp-19-11043-2019-ie00010.svg25pt16ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00010.png , and inline-formula M35inlinescrollmathml chem normal NH normal 4 + 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg57b95c61d17fec970641a3dc090ae78a acp-19-11043-2019-ie00011.svg24pt15ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00011.png at a national scale were 46.12 %, 71.02 %, 79.10 %, and 82.40 %, respectively. However, inline-formulaMg2+ (70.51 %), inline-formulaK+ (77.44 %), and inline-formulaCa2+ (82.17 %) mostly originated from the crustal source. Both inline-formulaNa+ (70.54 %) and inline-formulaCl (60.42 %) were closely linked to sea salt aerosols. On the basis of the stepwise regression (SR) analysis, it was proposed that most of the secondary ions and inline-formulaF were closely related to gross industrial production (GIP), total energy consumption (TEC), vehicle ownership, and N fertilizer use, but the crustal ions (inline-formulaCa2+ and inline-formulaK+) were mainly controlled by the dust events. The influence of dust days, air temperature, and wind speed on ions increased from southeast China (SEC) to central China, and then to northwest China (NWC), whereas the influence of socioeconomic factors on acid ions (inline-formula M44inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg1351e966e04bfc1e60ff4784424cad14 acp-19-11043-2019-ie00012.svg29pt17ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00012.png and inline-formula M45inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgafc29ccf929971927e195b135fd5e45c acp-19-11043-2019-ie00013.svg25pt16ptacp-19-11043-2019-ie00013.png ) displayed the higher value in east China.

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Li, Rui / Cui, Lulu / Zhao, Yilong / et al: Wet deposition of inorganic ions in 320 cities across China: spatio-temporal variation, source apportionment, and dominant factors. 2019. Copernicus Publications.

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