Field-test of wind turbine by voltage source converter
One of the main challenges for wind energy development is making wind turbines efficient in terms of costs whilst maintaining safe and reliable operation. An important design criterion is to fulfil the grid codes given by the transmission system operators. Grid codes state how wind farms must perform when connected to the grid under normal and abnormal conditions. In this regard, it is well-known that not all technical requirements can be tested by using actual impedance-based test equipment. Therefore, test equipment comprising a fully rated voltage source converter in back-to-back configuration is proposed. Thanks to the full controllability of the applied voltage in terms of magnitude, phase and frequency, the use of voltage-source-converter-based test equipment provides more flexibility compared to actual test systems. As demonstrated in this paper, the investigated test device not only can recreate any type of fault, including its recovery ramp, but also can carry out steady-state tests, such as frequency variations and frequency scan, on the test object. Finally, test results from a 4.1 MW wind turbine and 8 MW test equipment located in Gothenburg, Sweden, are shown to validate the investigated grid code test methodology.